• On June 16, 1961, about 20 of the directors and engineers of the State Railways Factories and Traction Department were invited to a meeting in Ankara.

    Assistant General Manager Emin BOZOGLU, who heads the meeting, read a letter from the Ministry of Transport. It was stated in the article that the task of "developing an automobile type that will meet the demand of a street passenger car" of Turkish Army was given to TCDD and 1.400.000 TL-TL allowance was allocated for this purpose.

    The given term was October 29, 1961, which means that the recognized time was 4.5 months. During this time, could a development work on this diameter be made? Could it possible to build a car that could work starting over from scratch, could such a miracle be realized? Most of the participants in the meeting tried to say that they were ready to work on willingly such a project, but they did not think that it would be possible to get results in such a short period of time, and some of them said "no".

    In all country, everyone from university to the press;  from a handful of industrialists to the politicians believed that neither an automobile nor a motor could be built in Turkey, and this opinion was emphasized in private chats, interviews, and even in conferences.

    But this incredible thing was happening and on the morning of October 29, 1961; an automobile made in Turkey, even its carbody not smooth, on its own wheels and with its own engine power made in Turkey was drived to in front of the Building of TBMM and presented to Cemal Gürsel Pasha. The other second one took Pahsa to Anıtkabir and then participated to parade in Hippodrome.

    How did this happen?

    The reason for the assignment of the State Railways rather than another organization for the project is that TCDD was established for the purpose of repair but it had got an important technical potential with Ankara, Eskişehir, Sivas and Adapazarı Factories which manufactured spare part on a large scale and these factories had got a poweful technical staff with qualified employees and engineers at that times. On the other hand, Assistant General Manager Professional Engineer Emin BOZOGLU was of military origin and at the same time was the relative of Sıtkı ULAY Pasha, so he was well known and trusted by members of the National Unity Committee and most cabinet members.

    Professional Engineer Emin Bozoğlu, as head of the management group, took a big role on running and completing the Project like other managers in the group. He also provided to overcome all bureaucratic obstacles and work in peace of 20 engineers who were under great stress due to urgency of task.

    The second factor in winning the race against time was that engineers worked at least 12 hours a day, including weekends during the project. These engineers devoted their life to this mission by spending their nights with a little nap on a disassembled automobile seat for complete the Project.

    At the meeting held on June 16, 1961, it was determined that the most suitable place for the Project was a building which was built as a foundry in Eskişehir Railway Plants (today TULOMSAS). And also it was determined in this meeting that the most appropriate method would be to focus on how to design and manufacture the prototype sizes, motor, gearbox, other groups and parts after having an idea by examining closely the structure of various types of automobiles.

    In order to prepare the workshop selected as the workplace, instructions were given to the officers in Eskişehir and the ones with the automobile were requested to be present in Eskişehir on 19 June. The floor of the foundry building was laid with sheets of plates purchased for use in locomotive boilers. A signboard with big figures was hung over the door  showing how many days left. This signboard stayed there until the end of the project. The workshop had a overhead traveling crane, several banks and a meeting table. This table, which had a tea shop nearby, was used for four months as a meeting, a rest, and a work table as needed.

    The "Management Group" was announced at the first meeting held at the workshop. Under the presidency of Assistant General Manager Emin BOZOĞLU, there were Head of Department of Factories Orhan ALP, Head of Traction Department Hakkı TOMSU, Assistant Manager of Traction Department Nurettin ERGUVANLI, Eskişehir Railway Factory Manager Mustafa ERSOY, Adapazari Railway Factory Manager Celal TANER, Ankara Railway Factory Manager Mehmet NÖKER and also two retired military officers in the group: General Management Consultants Necati PEKÖZ and Hüsnü KAYAOĞLU. Then, working groups were identified: Design, motor-transmission, body, suspension and brake, electrical equipment, casting, purchasing and costing groups.

    First, the main lines of the car were identified. It was agreed on a type of four to five people, with a total weight of 1000-1100 kg and medium size. The engine had to be 4-stroke and 4-cylinder, 50-60 horsepower.

    One of the 1:10 scale models prepared for the body was selected and a 1: 1 scale plaster model was made. The bodywork roof, the front hood and the other sheets were manufactured one by one by pulling them into concrete blocks made from the molds taken from this model and smoothed with hammer. On the other hand, after examining Willy's Jeep, Warswa, Chevrolet, Ford Consul, Fiat 1400 and 1100 engines, the Warswa engine was taken as a sample and the body and the head of a 4-cylinder engine with a side valve were manufactured in the Sivas Railway Factory and processed in the Ankara Railway Factory. Piston, piston rings and piston arms were manufactured in Eskisehir. The engine was installed in the Ankara Railway Factory. As an alternative to this engine, which can not take more power than 40 HP in braking, the Ankara Factory developed another type by coming out of the same body and crankshaft. The third engine with overhead valve called B-engine, was manufactured in Eskisehir.

    Suspension group proposed the "Mc Pearson" system for the front equipments and was manufactured in Eskişehir according to the sample.

    Towards the end of September, due to the obligation of fitting the front and rear windows to those found on the market, it was slightly modified according to the model, two of the bodies were welded, two separate engines of type A and B were prepared. The gearboxes were made locally by the Ankara Factory.

    The biggest problem encountered when starting the assembly was ensuring body-to-engine compatibility, positioning the clutch, gas and brake control mechanisms and finding the optimum position for steering. Adjustable steering advice was not accepted. However, two years later, Cadillac brought it as an innovation.

    Finally, in the middle of October, the first of the Revolution car could be ready for experience. All the parts except the electrical equipment, differential gears, universal joints, motor bearings, glass and tires were native.

    On the one hand, the road experience of this first car was maintained, while trying to train a second automobile equipped with a B-engine to be presented to the President. The last painting of Revolution 2 in black color could only be made on the evening of October 28th. Wax and polish processes were made in train at night when shipped to Ankara. As a safety precaution, the gasoline tanks of the automobiles were evacuated due to possible sparks from the chimneys of the steam-hauled train.  

    The train arrived at Ankara in the early morning. Two Devrim Automobiles were landed to Ankara Railway Factory which is located in the Sıhhiye in those days. Only a few liters of gasoline were put into the tanks to provide maneuver. The actual refueling would be done in the morning from the Mobil Gas Station in Sıhhiye, then gone to the Parliament.

    On the morning of October 29, The Devrim cars set out with a crowded motorcycle escort. The convoy went out on the road, but the escort passed the gas station and continued to the road because they had not got any information about getting gasoline. When reached to Parliament, the situation was understood, the gasoline brought by the rush was put into the first car. When putting fuel on the second car, Cemal Pasha came to the front of the Parliament and he got in the second Devrim Car to go to Anıtkabir. They departed. But after about 100 meters, engine stopped. To question of Cemal Pasha “What’s happening?”, Professional Engineer Rıfat Serdaroglu answered “Pasha, gasoline is over”. Being apologized to Pasha and requested him to pass to Devrim 1. Cemal Pasha, who fits this request, went to Anıtkabir with this car. When he got off the car he said his famous saying “the project team developed automobile with western mind, however forgot to supply the fuel with eastern mind”.

    The newspaper headlines in the following day were, "Devrim went 100 meters and it broke down". But the 2 numbered Devrim  participated in the parade in the Hippodrome within the same day, nobody talked neither this reality nor Cemal Pasha’s travelling to Anıtkabir with another Devrim Car. In all news, comment and anecdotes mentioned that all spent money went to waste. In fact, in same year, for recovery of horse generation, 25 million tl fund allocated to Ministry of Agriculture and nobody mentioned anything about this allowance and its results.


                                                                      This letter has been compiled from
    Certified Engineer Salih Kaya SAĞIN who is from bodywork group

    NOTE: Only one of the four Devrim Automobiles produced in 1961 was able to reach the present day. DEVRİM Automobile, which is kept in a specially constructed glazed garage in the garden of Turkish Locomotive and Engine Industry – TÜLOMSAŞ / Eskişehir, is still in operation.